Overview of Elections in the State of Tamil Nadu

Ruling Parties:

     1967 is the end of national parties in the state of Tamil Nadu (TN) and the state party Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) won the election and started ruling TN. From 1967, national parties never get a majority chance to rule the state. And DMK or AIADMK (All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam) are the two major parties ruling Tamil Nadu. The pie chart shows the number of years ruled by each party.

INC ruling periods: 1952-1967
DMK ruling periods: 1967-1977 & 1989-1991 & 1996-2001 & 2006-2011
AIADMK ruling periods: 1977-1989 & 1991-1996 & 2001-2006 & 2011-2019

Legislative Constituency (LC):

     In 1953, the Madras state was renamed as “Tamil Nadu” and some part of Madras state were separated.

  1. Coastal Andhra & Rayalaseema were separated to form the state of Andhra Pradesh
  2. South Canara & Bellary district were separated to form Mysore state
  3. Malabar district was separated to form Kerala

The state of Madras had 309 assembly constituencies during 1951 election. Out of which 243 were single member constituencies & 66 were dual member constituencies. In the 1957 election, the state of TamilNadu had 167 assembly constituencies in which 129 were single member constituencies and 38 dual member constituencies. Dual member constituency – A single constituency will be represented by two representatives and currently this system is practiced nowhere in the world. India had dual member constituency until 1961 and abolition of dual member constituency act was introduced in 1961. From 1967 the state has 234 assembly constituencies until 2019.

Electors & voters:

     If you look at the bar chart (Electors/Voters), the average increase in electors is calculated to 9.85% E-YoY (approximately), which is approximately 3.5% lesser growth when compared to India’s average elector's growth of 13%. The average polling percentage of Tamil Nadu falls at 67%, which is approximately 7% higher when compared to India’s average polling percentage of 60%.

The above mentioned average values are calculated with out considering 1951 data, since there was a major change in constituencies in 1953.

The total voters in the bar chart for the year 1951 & 1957 were back-calculated from reported polling percentage, since Tamil Nadu had dual member & single-member constituencies.

Vote Bank:

     The two major state parties AIADMK & DMK and the two national parties INC and BJP are taken into consideration in the "Vote share"/"Vote bank" line chart of Tamil Nadu. Apart from the above four parties, Pattali Makkal Katchi (PMK) is having a continuous vote record of 5% to 6% in Tamil Nadu from the year 1991.

     Before the existence of state parties, INC was the only party in power and they had a strong vote bank (5 to 6 crore) in Tamil Nadu from the year 1951 to 1967. INC could not able to contest in 1971 election, due to the major split occurred in 1969. After 1977 the vote bank of INC in Tamil Nadu is declining or not growing.

     The vote bank of BJP in Tamil Nadu is very less, but they are continuously growing in a steady state of around 30% E-YoY approximately.

     Candidates from DMK used to contest the election even before 1962 election but without a party name & symbol. The year 1962 was a great start for DMK and in the next election (1967) itself, they came into power and that's an end for all national parties in Tamil Nadu. In the history of elections, DMK had three major drops in vote bank,

  1. 1977 drop is due to the split of MG Ramachandran from DMK. Which continued up to 1984.
  2. The 1991 drop is due to the peoples' aversion to DMK and the rise of J. Jayalalitha in AIADMK after the death of MG Ramachandran.
  3. 2001 drop is due to the peoples' aversion to DMK on the various issues and still struggling to beat AIADMK.

     It is a great start for AIADMK when MG Ramachandran started his own party and in the very first election they came into power. And AIADMK got to hold for three consecutive elections (1977, 1980, 1984). In the history of elections, AIADMK had two major drops in vote bank,

  1. 1989 drop is due to the death of MG Ramachandran and there was a major split in the party.
  2. 1996 drop is mainly due to the peoples' aversion to AIADMK. The growth of AIADMK from 2001 is extraordinary and the average growth from 2001 is about 32% approximately E-YOY.
Male & Female voters:

     1951 & 1957 male/female voting values are not available; hence we have taken data from the year 1962.

The line chart clearly shows that the male & female voting percentage is travelling parallel to each other.

Female voters in 2011 & 2016 were slightly more than male voters and it shows women in Tamil Nadu have started showing more social responsibility.

The average percentage of male voters is calculated to 71.31%, which is 11.31% higher when compared to India’s average polling percentage of 60%. The average percentage of female voters is calculated to 67.48%, which is 11.31% higher when compared to India’s average polling percentage of 60%.

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